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In the last article, it was identified and established that Supply Chain is the key enabler for business growth. It is time now to understand what measures within supply chain drives supply chain excellence. As shown in the below figure, five elements contribute towards supply chain excellence. It starts with People, Quality, Velocity, Cost, and finally Agility to react to the dynamic business environment.

SC Excellence 1

In this article let me share my experience about how people can effectively contribute to the success of the business.

People:

Bill Gates once said, “Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can’t lose.” Success is not a permanent partner, success is a visitor in some cases, and hence, people may have to pursue the path of continuous improvement to sustain in this challenging environment. “Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm”. If one critically examines the only difference between successful people and the rest is nothing but lack of will to succeed.

In order to be successful in business we need a leader who can articulate the vision and goals of the organisation and along with him we need group of people whom we can call them as cohesive team. In order to be a successful team we need few critical attributes and they are:

Engagement – It is a challenge to any organisation to create an environment where employees who are part of the cohesive team understand the organisational goals and commit to the organizational vision created by the leader. Job engagement and organisational engagement leads to employee engagement. Happy employee is a productive employee. Hence, it is a key measure.

Leadership – It is an old school of thought that there is only one leader in the organisation. Yes, there is one leader at the top and he/she needs leadership support from many functional silos. It is essential that these emerging leaders should be trained in the areas of Communication; Motivating teams; Team building; Risk taking; Vision and goal setting. Last but not least is to recognize and reward the team’s performance. Say at least thanks for their contributions.

Think outside the box – Today’s business is dynamic, volatile and challenging, and the ability to improve continuously is very critical to the success of the organisation. The core driver to make your team to think outside the box is to deliver competitive differentiation in the market place. Due to product proliferation, there is no dearth of choices to the consumers, the product has to be unique and deliver total customer experience. This process is not static and it is continuously evolving. Unless one develops ideas and transforms them into reality that meets tomorrow’s customer needs, it would be highly challenging to survive in the market. Thinking is unlimited, there is myth that humans use only around 10% of their ability to think. It is not thinking that matters, Lateral thinking is the need of the hour!

Team Work – Success of any team depends upon the team work and team’s collective strength and wisdom. The best teamwork comes from group of individuals who collectively agree to work independently and together towards one identified organisational goal in unison. Let us not forget ““The strength of the team is each individual member. The strength of each member is the team.” In short WE = Power of Success!

Change Management – “Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future” John F. Kennedy. The world is changing in other words, it is evolving and if you live in the past and deliver a product belonging to yesterday for tomorrow’s world, the outcome would be disastrous. Obviously change is driven by a vision, get your vision right, build a team that could deliver your vision, empower the team, celebrate short term successes, and most importantly communicate and deliver the change message periodically. Change ushers exciting opportunity and at the same time could deliver loss, disruption or threat to some organisations. How such change process is managed can be the difference between surviving and thriving in a work or business environment. Change management should be developed as an inherent characteristic of any organisation who would like to survive and thrive in this world.

Perseverance – As mentioned earlier success is a visitor if you fail to pursue it consistently, it will desert you. In my opinion one may face many defeats in our journey in search of excellence, but you should never get defeated. The defeat teaches the critical lessons to how to succeed. Whereas success only makes you complacent. In order to manage sustainable success, it is absolutely necessary to be persuasive. Abraham Lincoln once said, “I am a slow walker, but I never walk back.”

Continuous Improvement – “Excellent firms don’t believe in excellence – only in constant improvement and constant change” Tom Peters. We can write tons of information how we can achieve continuous and sustainable improvement through the leadership vision and team work. Let us examine a case study which delivers invaluable information how continuous improvement in supply chain delivers competitive advantage in the market place.

Supply Chain Excellence2
Note: Please double click the image to see it large.

The human being is yet to invent an automated system that could foster sustainable continuous improvement in any field. It is all driven by the committed teams all around the world. Team of individuals is not a system, it is the group of people with commitment to make tomorrow a bright one and with emotions to win with persistent efforts and with a faith to turn hopeless failure into glorious success.

Any business organisation must have a clearly identified unique core objectives which differentiates the organisation with competitors. The so called differentiation comes through innovation of the people in the form of enhanced technology, improved quality, cost competitiveness, total customer experience. All these factors are articulated by a leader and implemented by the group of people whom we called an integrated and cohesive team.

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Globalisation 4

In my opinion Logistics industry can be described as wheels of Globalization and key to the market expansion and competitive product availability to the growing global consumers. Dynamic business conditions and confronting economic conditions are driving globalization. Globalization is resulting due to expanding markets, exploding retail market, product proliferation, ever changing needs of customers, economic downturn, cost pressures, technology, cultural integration and government policies around the world. It would be wrong to assume that globalization influences economy and trade only; we are seeing integration in the areas of culture, media, education, research and development, tourism and even climate change.  On political front, we see collaboration and collective approach in addressing daunting challenges we face today.   Globalization will make our societies more creative and prosperous, but also more vulnerable and in transforms economies more competitive.

Let us review some vital statistics (Source: Armstrong & Associates Inc.).  First let us review the region wise Logistics spend vs. 3PL revenue (2012):

Globalisation 1

Obviously Asia Pacific Region heads the chart in all categories if we exclude remaining other countries which were consolidated under other countries.  It would be worth looking into Asia Pacific region by country in order to identify the growth countries.  Top five are highlighted here under:

Globalisation 2

If we look globally, it would be interesting to compare the numbers and easy to identify the globalization impact on different countries:

Globalisation 3

It would be very interesting to analyse 2013 numbers as the world trade is not promising.  World trade is expected to grow by 2.5 percent this year and 4.5 percent in 2014 (source: The World Trade Organisation).  More and more companies are developing agile supply chains and compressing product supply lead time and at the same time reduce the cost of production.  In order  to achieve all these goals, outsourcing supply chains is one of the solutions.  According to CAPGEMINI Consulting 2014 report 72% of the shippers are planning to increase use of outsourced logistics services and whereas the 3PL companies believe that 78% increase in business.  Let us hope economy responds well in 2014!

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Leadership Pyramid Showing Vision Values Empowerment and Encouragement

Establish positive attitude and demonstrate your integrity to engage the team; and engagement leads to commitment and commitment results in enhanced productivity and improved productivity produces economic benefits to the Customers (Superior Quality and Cost Effective Products), Shareholders (Improved return on Investment), Employees (Career Growth and Job Certainty) and to the Organisation (Improved Brand Equity and Superior Financial Results).  Supply Chain is a team game and without cohesive and collaborative team you go nowhere.  In order to achieve all this; one should have the right attitude.  Someone appropriately commented that, “a bad attitude is like a flat Tyre, you can’t go anywhere till you change it”.

Positive attitude leads to great leadership and great supply chain results (Source: Gartner Supply Chain Top 25)

Top 25 SC Companies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

last 4 years comparison top supply chain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Believe in creating a successful future and not predicting the future!

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Planning is critical first step in developing an efficient supply chain and effective supply chain leads towards organizational excellence.  Right inventory availability at the right place is crucial to success of any business.  Probably that is the reason the logistics is defined as “time related positioning of resources.”  Inventory is a resource and time related positioning of the inventory in the required location makes supply chain a success.  We often hear about “sales loss.”  Sales loss is a hypothetical situation where the organization would have sold goods,  had they carried the right inventory at the defined location.  We all know that having appropriate inventory is not only the main reason to convince the customer to buy but without even having inventory the organization has no hope of even attracting the customer’s attention.  In order to carry the appropriate inventory at the required location, planning is the management process that helps organizations in carrying inventory that is appropriate for that location and when required, there is no point carrying rain coats inventory during the summer.

Management of inventory is a powerful driver of financial performance. In response to slowing growth and pressures on profitability, many companies today are exploring new ways to manage inventory effectively. Effective inventory management is only possible when tight planning is in place. Improved inventory management frees up cash to be invested elsewhere, allows products to be sold at lower prices, facilitates entrance into new markets, and delivers other benefits that improve financial performance and create competitive advantage.

Keeping in view of the importance of Planning, many organizations globally follow a business process called S&OP (sales and operations planning).

What is S&OP?

Sales and operations planning (S&OP) is an integrated business management process through which the executive/leadership team continually achieves focus, alignment and synchronization among all functions of the organization. The S&OP plan includes an updated sales plan, production plan, inventory plan, customer lead time (backlog) plan, new product development plan, strategic initiative plan and resulting financial plan. Plan frequency and planning horizon depend on the specifics of the industry. Short product life cycles and high demand volatility require a tighter S&OP planning as steadily consumed products. Done well, the S&OP process also enables effective supply chain management.”

The key objective of S&OP is to integrate all business functions and make them focus towards common goal. In order to make it happen we need three key elements, effective planning business process, ERP (software tool) and people to create a plan using the tool to deliver a management vision which will enables supply chain to function effectively.

In brief supply chain function is to source the right product at the right price, manufacture a product that is the core strength of the organization and deliver the product to the buyer to make profit and grow business.

The S&OP process starts with an annual business process of finding answers to critical questions such as product mix, make or buy, what to sell and where to sell etc. Once the clarity is established with regard to the goal/vision of the organization, the monthly, weekly and daily planning kicks-in as S&OP business process.

The S&OP process start with data gathering and review/cleansing the same.  The data gathering exercise includes both backward looking (past sales) and forward looking (forecast).  At this stage the S&OP manager plays a very critical role of suggesting any abnormality in the forecasted product taking into consideration various factors such as product availability, NPI (new product introduction), EOL (end of life), components constraint, product strategy etc.

The second step involves collaboration with the sales force to understand the demand forecast in an unconstrained environment.  The S&OP team reviews the numbers and constraints if any and agree to the plan which is Demand Forecast/Plan.

The third step is planning supplies to match the forecast.  In my opinion this is the critical step and many organizations have failed in translating the demand into a supply plan.  Further, due to software limitations the forecast never gets converted unless true demand in the form of sales orders is loaded in the system.  As the prime objective of planning is to optimize the inventory levels, every care is taken to order what is required.  However, business dynamics do not follow a plan resulting in artificially created shortages.  Sometimes these shortages may not be true shortages.  Product could be available in a wrong place.  In any distribution network, inventory is carried in multiple levels, such as manufacturing locations, central distribution facilities, country distribution facilities, etc.  It would be highly challenging to predict the sales/demand by SKU and by location.  And that could be the reason for forecast inaccuracies still exists causing product supply disruption.

The fourth step is very critical and again collaborative in nature.  There is a tendency to forecast higher numbers keeping in view of shortages in the past or there could be true increase in demand.  The increase in numbers raises questions on production capacities and infrastructure challenges.  A consensus is needed to agree to a plan which is optimal taking into consideration various business constraints.

The fifth and final step is to obtain executive buy-in.  This step ensures that all forces driving organizational growth are aligned working towards common goal with agreed plan.  Having said that, in reality all steps explained above may not happen as planned and that could result in back orders or past due orders.  In short back order is a true sales order not fulfilled as promised due to material shortages.  The back order could be a result of various factors such as ineffective demand forecasting, poor supply planning, system (ERP) glitches, badly managed sourcing rules, incorrect product lead times etc.  All these dynamics play a vital role in strengthening planning activity.  Having a plan is as important as executing the same efficiently.  Back orders are the results of mixture of poor planning, inadequate distribution network and negligence resulting in carrying in aged master data resulting in poor promise dates and also forecast buckets.  Promise date is the date indicated for order execution based on lead time, inventory availability and forecasting.

What are the benefits of effective planning?

  1. Planning integrates teams within an organization and makes them work for a common goal;
  2. Planning eliminates uncertainties’ to a large extent.
  3. Planning inculcates collaborative approach.
  4. Indirectly improves employees’ morale as organization delivers better results.
  5. Planning eliminates wastage.
  6. Planning provides competitive edge.
  7. Planning encourages innovations.

How inaccurate is planning Globally?

Source: “Benchmarking Forecasting Practices” (2006) by Chaman L Jain and Jack Malehorn.

Some facts about Forecasting Function:

  1. Management Support – 54% Respondents indicated that their Management supports Planning Function.
  2. Forecasting as a Discrete Function – Only 36% respondents indicated that their organization has separate Planning function.
  3. Forecasting function responsibility rests with Supply Chain Function, it is moving away from Finance function.
  4. Conflict of Interest –  A full 60% of respondents said that in developing a final forecast, there was some bias on the part of managers providing input from various other functions (sales, marketing, production, etc.), with the strongest response in this direction from the consumer package goods industry.
  5. Consensus Forecasts – 49% survey respondents agreed that they use consensus forecasts.
  6. Forecast Horizon – 36% of respondents forecast one year out, versus 34% who forecast over a horizon longer than one year. 16% have only a quarterly horizon, and 13% forecast for only the following month.
  7. Forecast Buckets – Not surprisingly, a plurality of 38% forecast in monthly time buckets, versus 17% that use weekly forecasts, 14% that do quarterly forecasts, and a surprising 22% that just use annual forecasts.
  8. Production Lock-Down: 45% of the companies in the survey (all industries combined) lock their production schedule one month out, versus 20% at three months and 16% at two months. 9% claimed to lock product schedules more than 6 months out.
  9. Forecast Monitoring: 72% of companies consistently monitor, and 67% of them revised forecasts on a monthly basis.
  10. Consensus Meeting – According to the survey, 76% of companies have some form of consensus forecast meeting.
  11. S&OP Planning – 70% of companies say they use an S&OP process in their companies.
  12. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) – 43% of companies have taken such an initiative, and is growing. That is 13% increase over 2006 numbers.

Source: Annual Forecasting Benchmark Data Released by Forecasting Institute – Published in Supply Chain Digest.

Key outcomes of S&OP Planning:

  1. 15% less inventory
  2. 17% better perfect order performance
  3. 35% shorter cash-to-cash cycle time
  4. 10% higher revenue
  5. 5% to 7% better profit margins

Source: AMR Benchmark Analytix data

A good planning process is vital to supply chain continuity. A strong supply chain continuity capability ultimately relies on strong, well-chosen and well managed business planning process in a collaborative environment. The benefits of a strong planning process include collaborative partnerships within and outside organizations.  Planning is a disciplinary business process which infuses serenity to the business and minimizes uncertainty.

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Supply Chain superiority determines organizational competitiveness.  Some believe that supply chain superiority or excellence is achieved with the help of three elements; process, people and technology.  Another group would advocate continuous improvement, benchmarking and KPIs, and innovative thinking would lead to supply chain excellence.  Do you think these factors drive the excellence?  My answer would be, yes and no.  Yes because these are fundamental requirements of any supply chain but beyond these elements something else works behind the scene to improve your supply chain effectiveness.

In order to make all above mentioned factors to work effectively three factors are critical.  The first and foremost is Collaborative Relationships.  The other two factors are Trust and Commitment.  In my opinion supply chain is all about managing relationships, demonstrating trust in relationships and committing to the core objectives. Let me explain how my theory works.  The below given graphic would explain various supply chain relationships:

As you can see from the above graphic supply chain manages internal and external relationships with various agencies.  Supply Chain relationship with Sales and Marketing, Manufacturing, Logistics, and various Vendors will ensure that the right product is made available at the right time and place at the right cost.  Sales team relationships with agents, distributors, retailers and consumers will make organizations grow and become competitive.

People make things happen, technology give us the ability to establish supply chain visibility and the process drives the activities.  However, all these factors could function in a silo apporach and make supply chains fail.  What is required is an integrated approach and integration is possible by establishing trusting relationships.  Effective relationship management can provide a positive contribution to sustainable supply chain superiority and also help to satisfy stakeholder interests.

Many organizations end up with huge inventories and wrong product on shelf and mounting supply chain costs.  The main reason for this catastrophe is lack of trusting relationships among supply chain partners.  In my opinion all above are supply chain partners.  The partners could include internal members as well as external members.  What is evident is that supply chain fails if the partners working for individual benefits without a common goal.  Someone said, we all stumble, that’s why it’s a comfort to go hand in hand.

Mutual trust was defined as “a shared belief that you can depend on each other to achieve a common purpose”.  Trust plays a crucial role in strengthening relationships and organisational changes and it is a critical component in building a collaborative relationship among supply chain partners. Trust creates an increase in openness among partners involved and it is perceived as a result of effective collaborative relationships and leading to higher levels of partner/customer satisfaction.  Trust is not gained in a day or two; trust is built up over a series of interpersonal encounters, in which the parties establish reciprocal obligations.

“An ounce of performance is worth pounds of promises”. In order to turn your promises into performance you need commitment. The third ingredient for the supply chain success recipe is commitment; commitment means to show loyalty, duty or pledge to the core organizational values.  In a partnership commitment plays a vital role along with trust. Someone rightly said, “unless commitment is made, there are only promises and hopes; but no plans.” Unless the supply chain partners are committed to a common goal which could deliver mutual benefits, it would be a challenge to establish a trusting and successful relationship.

According to a recent report from Boston-based AMR Research Inc., “companies that excel in supply-chain operations perform better in almost every financial measure of success. Where supply chain excellence improves demand-forecast accuracy, companies have a 5% higher profit margin, 15% less inventory, up to 17% stronger “perfect order” ratings, and 35% shorter cash-to-cash cycle times than their peers. Companies with higher perfect-order performance have higher earnings per share, a better return on assets, and higher profit margins — roughly 1% higher for every three percentage-point improvement in perfect orders”.  In order to achieve these two key measures (i.e. demand forecast accuracy and perfect order performance), committed collaborative and trusting relationships are crucial.

Hachiko – A Dog’s Story motivated me to write this article. This story is based on a true incident from Japan. This story is about the relationships, trust and commitment shown by a dog and also explains how invincible bonds form instantaneously in the most unlikely situations. We do not realize the value of relationships until reality bites.

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on behalf of a third party

Image by Lєaтнєянєaят via Flickr

At the outset I would like to clarify that this article is not going to deal with outsourcing risks.  The focus is on Supply Chain risks in an outsourced environment.  Risk in managing supply chains is high due to several reasons such as Terrorism, Shrinkage, Quality, Natural disasters, IP Thefts, and Vandalism etc.  The risk magnifies if the some or total operations are outsourced. Twenty five percent CAPGEMINI 2010 outsourcing survey participants have indicated that loss of control as one of the reasons for not outsourcing.

In order to outsource and to mitigate the supply chain risks collaboration becomes very critical in an outsourced environment.  According to CAPGEMINI 2007 report practitioners reveal a gap between the desire to work collaboratively with 3PLs and how to go about it. Collaboration means equal participation whereas 35% of the CAPGEMINI 2005 survey participants have indicated that the time and effort spent on managing Logistics functions not reduced.  This could mean practitioners believe that outsourcing means total responsibility transfer to 3PLs and no participation or minimal participation from their side.  Outsourcing means handing over the control over operations to a third party but the ownership rests with the outsourcing companies and they cannot disown the responsibility. One should clearly understand that the outsourcing is confined to activity but not the function.  The functional responsibility rests with the outsourcing company and they may have to execute the activity in collaboration with the service provider.

Time and again shippers (outsourcing companies) repeatedly pointed out that 3PL (third party logistics) companies do not have the project management capabilities and they fail during the transition due to lack of industry specific knowledge and also due to lack of process integration capability across supply chain. These teething issues if not addressed properly could lead to relationship failures.  Hence, the problem is not supply chain risks but the lack of collaboration in tackling the issues.  In order to highlight the seriousness of the issue, I reviewed the last five CAPGEMINI outsourcing surveys and the trend indicates consistency.

In my opinion, top three reasons that could lead to supply chain risks in an outsourced environment would be lack of project management skills, unsatisfactory transition and lack of knowledge based skills.  Surprisingly the feedback over the last five years was consistent and we see 20% improvement in case of knowledge based skills.  This could be due to more skilled force joining 3PL companies and we have seen recently 3PL companies recruiting practitioners as subject matter experts and to manage the projects.  What is disturbing is that on an average 15% survey respondents have indicated that 3PLs are unable to form meaningful and trusting relationships.  In my opinion this is a cause of concern.  The recent survey conducted by CAPGEMINI (2009) indicated that only 25% of the shippers felt that the outsourcing is “extremely successful” and further 64% participants felt that outsourcing is “somewhat successful”.   If the outsourcing community is not totally happy with the outsourcing outcomes or performance, managing risks through collaboration could become a serious issue.

How secure are the shippers about the security provided by 3PL companies?

The 2008 CAPGEMINI survey did indicate that majority of the respondents are comfortable with the security arrangements.  Around 22% have indicated somewhat secure and 2% indicated that not secure.  Supply Chain security is paramount and even if 2% were unhappy, it needs immediate attention.  These risks could lead to major customer satisfaction issues.  That could be the reason why 25% non-outsourcing respondents (2009 survey) indicated that they do not outsource due to loss of control over operations.  Some of the serious security breaches indicated in the 2008 survey included the following:

  1. In one case, 2GB branded USB sticks were replaced with 1GB but appeared as 2GB to users.
  2. Another case involved falsified Italian airplane parts that were later rumoured to have contributed to accidents.

Supply Chain security is critical to all industries but it is vital for some specific industries where any security breach could be life and death question and the example could be food contamination.  58% Food and beverages industry respondents in 2008 survey indicated that spoilage of food products creating a health risk as the biggest risk. The above mentioned survey did indicate that 3% Food and Beverage industry respondents were not secure about the arrangement, which is really a cause of concern.  Tampering was reported as the second biggest threat (45%) for life sciences and pharmaceutical companies.  This is also a life threatening risk.

Type of Supply Chain Risks:

One can divide the risks into two categories, the first one dealing with 3PL operational efficiency related risks and the second one dealing with generic supply chain risks. The trends reveal some interesting facts.

The top three risks, theft of material, material tampering and theft intellectual capital were predominant in Asia compared to global trends.  The risk of terrorist attacks and the disruptions due to natural disasters are the two top risks in North America.  Whereas Latin America faces serious supply chain risks from, smuggling of other material with the shipments, Vandalism and Spoilage of food products leading to health risks.  Europe is a mixed bag, it also faces all risks but the thefts and thefts of Intellectual capital are over and above the average global percentage.

The first three supply chain risks identified as 3PL operational efficiency related risks are quite common even in insourced operations.  As warehousing and distribution function is a non-core activity for many organizations, organizations should work in collaboration with the service provider to minimize the risks and operational disruptions.

Enhance Supply Chain Security:

Risks are inevitable and outsourcing is unavoidable (encouraged due to various benefits of outsourcing).  Hence, it is necessary to enhance the supply chain security with the help of service providers.  CAPGEMINI 2008 survey identified 12 enhancements and the participants have identified gaps in enhancing the security.  The below given chart is developed based on the data published in the above mentioned survey:

If we review top three gaps, any one would understand that it is not a challenging task to improve security.  What is lacking is proactive approach from both the shipper and the service provider.  Lack of proactive reporting with regard to thefts or any other risks is the biggest complaint by the outsourcing community and this continues to haunt the 3PL industry even today.  In most of the cases, the customer (shipper) gets to know first about the incident.  This is really frustrating for the practitioners.

RFID tags are virtually impossible to copy, making them suitable to security applications. According to “The pros and cons of RFID in supply chain management” article the cost of goods lost within supply chains among the European companies was 50 Million euros a day and the same report indicated that up to US$30 billion worth of goods are being lost each year within supply chain.  However, recent development are encouraging, one of the biggest retailer (Wal-Mart) introduced mandates for RFID adoption.

Providing alternative routing for shipments is a possibility.  However, in the peak seasons such as Christmas and Chinese New Year time it would be next to impossible for rerouting keeping in view of very limited options.

Collaboration:

Collaboration is all about working together.  The CAPGEMINI 2008 survey published how the shipper and service provider are collaborating by industry.  What is heartening to note is that 48% shippers are willing to collaborate with the service provider to enhance the supply chain security to a limited extent.  Retail dominates this segment (57%), followed by Life Science (51%) and Chemical (50%).  Thefts are very high in retail whether the operations are outsourced or insourced and life science and chemical industries face more risks if they fail to collaborate with the service providers to achieve selected security improvements.  The 2008 CAPGEMINI report indicates that the higher the company’s revenue, the more likely they are collaborating beef up security measures.

Supply chain efficiency is the back bone of organizational excellence.  According to one estimate supply chain disruptions could result in 40 percent decline in share price.  Prof. Vinod Singhal of DuPree College of Management, Georgia Institute of Technology indicated that material shortages could contribute 7.5% reduction in share value on a given day.

Today’s business success to great extent depends on logistics and supply chain performance and the role of Supply chain has never been as critical as it is today. Supply Chain speed and flexibility have become two key levers for competitive differentiation and increased profitability. In order to compete effectively in the market place Supply Chain managers drive cost improvements and that could lead to some supply chain risks.

“Many of the key risk factors have developed from a pressure to enhance productivity, eliminate waste, remove supply chain duplication, and drive for cost improvement,” says William L. Michels, CEO of consulting firm ADR North America, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Today’s supply chain professionals recognize the risk as part and parcel of supply chain management and at the same time outsourcing is also inevitable.  Hence, the trick lies in identifying the risk and mitigating the same with the help of supply chain partner.  Proactive approach and collaboration minimizes the risk element in Supply Chain.

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